筆記：談「懷疑一切」"De omnibus dubitandum"
De omnibus dubitandum. (You must have doubts about everything). ---Marx's favourite motto. -- 【懐疑主義 ( かいぎしゅぎ scepticism, skepticism) 】
馬克思最喜愛的箴言：「懷疑一切。」 "De omnibus dubitandum. "
（" You must have doubts about everything."； 意味は「 Everything should be
doubted （全てに疑念を持つ べきである）」）
[ 英] 戴維 ‧麥克萊倫（David McLellan ）『卡爾‧馬克思傳』（第 3 版），王珍譯，北京；人民大學出版社出版，2005 ，p.430 ）。
( 在 "Introduction to Philosophy --Study Questions for Final Exam" 問了一系列的哲學考題：http://www.
其中第 31-4題為：（希望這篇「多少」能解答第 34問題）
- What were the elements in Hegel's philosophy that Soren Kierkegaard found unacceptable?
- What was the original title for Kierkegaard's short novel Johannes Climacus?
- How is Johannes described at the beginning of the novel Johannes Climacus?
- What is meant by de omnibus dubitandum est? )
"De omnibus dubitandum." - Rene Descartes
"…..However, Descartes maintained that the Scriptures were true. This would appear to make a divide between different kinds of truth. How did Descartes, after all, come to know the veracity of the Scriptures? Why were the Scriptures not the object of his scrutiny? His explanation for not appealing to an a priori acceptance of Scripture is that it would appear to unbelievers to be a circular argument. This might make it appear that his "method" was solely for unbelievers. Whether Descartes' nod to Scripture was also designed to satisfy the Church, I cannot say….."
10)Cf. Russell, Our Know1edge of the External World as a Field for Sceintific Method in Philosophy(London; G. Allen & Unwin, 1914), pp.70-72.
這也是祈克果 Søren Kierkegaard 在1842 之作品：英文本： Kierkegaard's Writings, VII: Philosophical Fragments, or a Fragment of Philosophy/Johannes Climacus, or De omnibus dubitandum est. -- 這，有人說是小說。 (Two books in one volume) Edited and translated by Edna H. Hong and Howard V. Hong
參考 D. Anthony Storm's Commentary On Kierkegaard - Johannes Climacus
Johannes Climacus, or De omnibus dubitandum est. A Narrative;
Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil: